HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Thu, 26 Nov 2020 04:29:43 GMT 三级墙微

10月房价显露探底企稳迹象 跌幅逐步收窄

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 中国房价下一个大跌信号已现 人口红利见顶 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

发改委:城乡二元的土地制度是影响中国实现城乡融合发展的重要制度

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

SplashData公司首席执行官摩根-斯莱恩说:“不幸的是,虽然最新的一部星球大战系列电影很精彩,但使用‘starwars’这个密码却很危险。”
今年最佳的季中交易早已发生了:
And, ‘trustno1’ proved, perhaps unsurprisingly, to be among the worst passwords as well, taking up spot number 25.
推进国际贸易和投资自由化便利化。
全球肥胖率上升的前因后果。
['seti?]
fare

《性别之战》
我在喜马拉雅山的山脚下度过了青春岁月,当时有个朋友被我们称为“追梦人”。他每天都在享受最微妙的乐趣——用五颜六色标注蝴蝶、数地平线上的高峰,对着形状各异的云朵编故事。他是个快乐的家伙,对生活的美妙深有体会,容易兴奋激动。亲爱的2013届毕业生,我认识这家伙很多年了,今天我坐下来给你们写这篇文章的时候,突然想到了他。
中共中央纪律检查委员会表示,中国正准备与其他国家签署更多双边或多边协议,并将加强信息交流和联合调查,尤其是与美国、加拿大和澳大利亚等西方国家在一些重大或独立个案上的合作。
谎言7:没错,约翰昨晚是和我在一起。说谎原因:这就是朋友该做的事。等下我们两个还要通通气,以免穿帮。
It makes piggybacks more comfortable.

Footnotes

  • 人民币海外基金业务规模突破3000亿元
  • Among the year’s biggest surprises was the plunge in gasoline pries. Economists differed on the economic impact—money in the pockets of consumers offset by declines in exploration and drilling activity—but everyone agreed that it was bearish for small cars and hybrids. The combination of cheap gas and a steep sticker price made the Cadillac ELR the runaway winner of the most disliked car of the year award. Only 155 of the Volt-based $80,000 cars found buyers in November.

3.视频编辑:增长了19.2%
男女学员对所攻读项目的优势评价一样。
Her mother Stephanie Boyden, 32, says Bobbi is a 'diva' who runs to the stage when her name is called - and screams when she has to leave.
release
The programme entered the ranking in second place in 2006 and was ranked top in 2008.
3.You Spend More Time Surfing the Web Than Doing Your Job

大连存量房交易4月起须网签备案

References

View Abstract